The following tests and
procedures may be used in the staging process:
Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood
sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs
in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign
of disease. The blood sample will be checked for the level of LDH
A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the lung, lymph nodes, and liver, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray
machine. A dye
may be injected
into a vein
or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignanttumor
cells in the body. A small amount of radioactiveglucose
(sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET scanner
rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.
resonance imaging) with gadolinium: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. A substance called gadolinium is injected into the patient through a vein. The gadolinium collects around the cancer cells so they show up brighter in the picture. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
A procedure used to collect cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF) from the spinal column. This is done by placing a needle between two bones in the spine
and into the CSF around the spinal cord
and removing a sample of the fluid. The sample of CSF is checked under a microscope
for signs that the cancer has spread to the brain and spinal cord. The sample may also be checked for Epstein-Barr virus. This procedure is also called an LP or spinal tap.
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
: Cancer is found in one or more lymph node
groups either above or below the diaphragm. Cancer is also found outside the lymph nodes in one organ
or area on the same side of the diaphragm as the affected lymph nodes.
For treatment, AIDS-related lymphomas are grouped based on where they started in the body, as follows:
that starts in the lymph system
or elsewhere in the body, other than the brain, is called peripheral/systemic lymphoma. It may spread throughout the body, including to the brain or bone marrow. It is often diagnosed in an advanced stage.