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Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

The brain is made of different kinds of cells. Childhood brain tumors are grouped and treated based on the type of cell the cancer formed in and where the tumor began growing in the CNS. Some types of tumors are divided into subtypes based on how the tumor looks under a microscope. See Table 1 for a list of tumor types and staging and treatment information for newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood brain tumors.

Table 1. Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumor Type and Its Related PDQ Treatment Summary
Tumor Type Tumor Subtype Related PDQ Treatment Summary
WHO = World Health Organization.
Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin    
Low-Grade Astrocytomas Angiocentric glioma See Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment for information on low-grade astrocytomas.
Choroid glioma of the third ventricle
Diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant
Pilocytic astrocytoma
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
High-Grade Astrocytomas Anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant See Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment for information on high-grade astrocytomas.
Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
Diffuse midline glioma, H3K27M-mutant
Glioblastoma, IDH-mutant
Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype
Other Astrocytomas or Gliomas Astroblastoma See Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment for information on other astrocytomas or gliomas.
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma
 
Brain Stem Glioma    
  Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas See Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment.
Focal or low-grade brain stem gliomas
 
Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors    
Medulloblastoma See Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment for information on medulloblastoma and nonmedulloblastomas.
Nonmedulloblastomas Central nervous system ganglioneuroblastoma
Central nervous system neuroblastoma
Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR)
Medulloepithelioma
Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor   See Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment.
 
Tumors of the Pineal Region Pineoblastoma See Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment.
 
Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors    
Germinomas   See Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment.
Teratomas Immature teratomas
Mature teratomas
Teratomas with malignant transformation
Non-Germinomatous Germ Cell Tumors Choriocarcinoma
Embryonal carcinoma
Mixed germ cell tumors
Yolk sac tumor
 
Craniopharyngioma   See Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment.
 
Ependymoma    
  Subependymoma (WHO Grade I) See Childhood Ependymoma Treatment.
Myxopapillary ependymoma (WHO Grade I)
Ependymoma (WHO Grade II)
Anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III)
RELA fusion-positive ependymoma (WHO Grade II or Grade III)
 
Tumors of the Choroid Plexus    

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